Suffixes are added to the end of the word. Suffixes frequently alter the word-class of the base. For example, the adjective kind is changed to abstract noun when the suffix – ness is added to the adjective – kind; to form – kindness.

Noun suffixes:

Occupational (Noun to noun)

  • -ster (person’s identity) as in gangster, superstar
  • -eer (an occupation/activity) as in engineer, pensioneer
  • -er (varied meanings) as in teenager, Londoner


  • -let as in booklet, piglet
  • -ette as in kitchenette, statuette, flannette,usherette
  • -ess as in waitress, hostess

-y, ie as in daddy, auntie    
Noun/adjectives to noun/adjectives

  • -(i)-ite as in Israelite, socialite
  • -an as in Indonesian, republican
  • -ese as in Chinese
  • -ist as in socialist, violinist 
  • -ism as in idealism, communism  

Verb to noun

  • -er, or as in driver, processor
  • -ant inhabitant, disinfectant
  • ee as in employee, testee
  • -ation as in exploration, organisation     
  • -ment as in amazement, fulfillment
  • -al as in refusal, dismissal
  • -age as in drainage

 Adjective to noun

  • -ness as in happiness, goodness
  • -ity as in sanity, humility

Verb to noun/adjective/verb

  • -ify as in simplify
  • -ize as in popularize,advertize
  • -en as in deafen, sadden

Noun to adjectives

  • -ful as in useful, helpful
  • -less as in childless, harmless
  • -ly as in cowardly, outwardly
  • -like  as in childlike, christlike
  • -y  as in creamy, hairy
  • ish as in Turkish, foolish, rubbish
  • -ian as in Darwinian, Christian

Other suffix common in borrowed and neo-classical words

  • -al as in criminal
  • -ial as in editorial
  • -ical as in musical
  • – ic as in heroic, historic
  • -ive as in attractive, affirmative, sensitive

Other adjectives suffix added to form v-noun. For example readable, bearable, etc.

Adverb suffix

  • -ly  as in happily, strangely, brightly
  • -ward as in backward, forward
  • -wise (in the manner of/as far as/is concerned) as in crabwise, otherwise, weather-wise.

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    I'm simply known as Sosa. A well known programmer and founder of the defunct Lectures Portal, Simplicity is my nature.

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