Sentence : A sentence is a group of words so arranged as to express a complete thought. Each sentence has subject (something spoken about) and Predicate (something said about it). Examples :
1. All the world is a stage
2. I remember
All the world is a stage
Synthesis : This means combining or binding together a succession of little sentences, all bearing on the sane subject, into one or more longer sentences, in which the facts stated will be presented in a more readable form. Synthesis is to composition what Analysis is to parsing.
Simple Sentence : A sentence is said to be simple when it has only one finite verb expressed or understood. In other words, a simple sentence contains only one subject and one predicate. Example 1 and 2 above are simple sentences. Further examples are :
3. He supports his mother. She has bad health.
4. He supports his mother. She is invalid.
Clauses: The two sets of simple sentences above can be combined or rolled into one (synthesis) by the use of the relative “who” and a transfer of adjective:
5. He supports his invalid mother who has bad health.
6. He supports his invalid mother.
When two sentences are thus combined, they cease to be called sentences, and, in relation to the new sentence which they form, they are called Clauses.
Compound Sentences: A compound sentence is a combination of clauses. A compound sentence can compromise any number of classes provided each clause is independent. For example :
7. The cat meowed, the dog whined, and the baby howled for its rattle.
Complex Sentences : In some instances, the clauses maybe dependent. When there exists a principal clause and a subordinate one, the whole sentence is called a Complex Sentence.
9. Here is a portrait of my grandmother, who was in her youth a very beautiful woman.
Here the clause who was a very beautiful woman is dependent on the first clause. It describes my grandmother, and so stands in place of an adjective.
10. The money was discovered where it had fallen.
Here the clause expands what the verb tells us, and really stands in place of an adverb.
A complex sentence contain a number of subordinate clauses. We may have all two kinds of examples shown above ( example 9 and 10) in the same sentence.
Complex and Compound Sentences: These contain two principal clauses and one or more dependent clauses as:
11. They reached the battlements which were deserted by the sentinels, and put the entire garrison to the sword.
For the purpose of composition the following three classification is sufficient :
Compound Sentence : (those having two or more principal clauses but no subordinate clauses)
Complex sentence: (those having one or more principal, and one or more subordinate clauses).
Compare the following example: The principal verbs are in bold type :
12. John Adams was a citizen of credit and renown. Simple
13. The Queen of france, being a Spaniard, would not, he thought, be welcome. Complex
14. Tom put out his pink palm, and Bob was not slow to place his hard, grimy hand within it. Compound
Grammatical Functions : You must guard against error of regarding the grammatical principal clause as the most important clause.
15. He told me that my house had been burned to the ground.
He told is grammatically the principal clause, but the subordinate noun clause is the more important. What does it matter who told me, compared with the fact that my house is ruined?
On the other hand, if the news were false, and the question was who had spread the disagreeable story, the grammatical principal clause would also be really important one.
Phrases : A phrase is a group of words which make sense, not complete sense consider the following examples :
16. Being unable to stifle his remorse………..
17. To have worked well………………………..
These words do not make complete sense. To make complete sense, we must add the finite part of some verb, thus:
18. Being unable to stifle his remorse, he killed himself.
19. To have worked well is small satisfaction.